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The Iranians were among the pioneer carpet weavers of the ancient civilizations, having achieved a superlative degree of perfection through centuries of creativity and ingenuity. The skill of carpet weaving has been handed down by fathers to their sons, who built upon those skills and in turn handed them down to their offspring as a closely guarded family secret. To trace the history of Persian carpet is to follow a path of cultural growth of one of the greatest civilizations the world has ever seen. From being simple articles of need, floor and entrance coverings to protect the nomadic tribesmen from the cold and damp, the increasing beauty of the carpets found them new owners – kings and noblemen, who looked upon them as signs of wealth, prestige and distinction. To look at a Persian carpet is to gaze into a world of artistic magnificence nurtured for more then 2, years. The Iranians were among the first carpet weaver of the ancient civilizations and, through centuries of creativity and ingenuity building upon the talents of the past, achieved a unique degree of excellence. Even today, with Iranians increasingly being swallowed up in the whirlpool of a fast expanding industrial, urban society, the Persian association with the carpet is as strong as ever. An Iranian’s home is bare and soulless without it, a reflection on the deep rooted bond between the people and their national art.

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Hundreds of illustrated volumes survive today, doubtless only a fraction of the actual artistic production that began in the Il-khanid Mongol period, if not earlier, and continued into the modern era in both painted and printed form Robinson, Images in literary sources and monuments. It also may reprise a much older fresco tradition as evidenced by the well-known scenes of Rostam painted on the walls of the Sogdian palace circa CE at Panjikant Marshak, pp.

Instead, the painted registers juxtapose selected or excerpted moments to create an epitomized pictorial sequence that evokes the entire tale as the beaker is turned counterclockwise.

February Asian Traditional Archery Grip on the Bow. From Soon See I read in a book called Arab Archery (which is a translation of a manuscript written in the 15th century) that Arabic bow has its center located at the point which is one finger width below the top of the grip.

History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.

You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.

Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery. Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations.

They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn’t until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item. In recent years batteries have changed out of all recognition. No longer are they simple electrochemical cells. Today the cells are components in battery systems, incorporating electronics and software, power management and control systems, monitoring and protection circuits, communications interfaces and thermal management.

At the end of the fourth millennium B.

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Napp, if not other noted Entering the Service At least since the New Kingdom, some initiation rituals were part of the introduction to priesthood, involving with high probability vows to keep purity, not to take advantage of the office, and perhaps obedience to the superiors. Some scientists believe, that the 42 “Declarations of Innocence” written in the Book of the Dead are actually such vows from the initiation ceremony.

The recently discovered “Book of the temple”, written in Middle Egyptian and probably already dating back to the Middle Kingdom, tells us – as far as can be read in the fragments – of such vows. Amongst other things, the candidate had to attest he has committed no murder. Becoming a priest in Ancient Egypt was an initiation similar to the one undergone by the deceased during their journey through the “underworld”.

It was a transition to the sphere of the gods and eternity.

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This approach will be adopted here in our overview of classical Persian literature, a daunting task in itself given the range and abundance of the material on the one hand, and the need for brevity and conciseness in a survey on the other. In our study of the development of this literature over ten centuries, we will pay special attention to the early formation and origins of different literary genres in Persian works, even though the very notion of literary genres is somewhat arbitrary and a subject of continuing debate and shifting delineation Fowler; Perkins.

Nevertheless the approach is suitable for an overview, for it makes it possible to discuss, however briefly, broader themes and underlying aesthetic assumptions, and to venture beyond a mere recital of dates, titles, and short biographies of major figures of Persian literature. Another major factor in a literary survey is the diachronic dimension: Persian literature lends itself well to this approach, since historical events certainly influenced literary history: The fourteenth century serves as a transitional bridge between the previous and the subsequent periods: Given the importance of local courts and their patronage in sustaining poets and writers, it was inevitable that literature would be greatly influenced by schools of thought in different provinces of the Iranian world.

In the context of this article, the term literature is used to refer to the written word skillfully and imaginatively crafted. Some writings are therefore excluded.

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USk Symposium Meet the Correspondent: I don’t feel comfortable when I leave home without a sketchbook and some pens in my bag. I think that my way to put things in my memory is to draw them. And taking pictures isn’t the same thing. I live in a very dynamic surrounding — Israel is a warm country with warm weather and warm people. Of course, we have seashores, which calm us a little bit.

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Mithras is often represented as carrying a lamb on his shoulders, just as Jesus is. Midnight services were found in both religions. Petra, the sacred rock of Mithraism, became Peter, the foundation of the Christian Church. Itu derivative of Mitu or Mitra is considered as the Vegetation-deity. It is said that Mithra or [the] Sun took birth in the Cave on December 25th. He travelled far and wide.

He has twelve satellites, which are taken as the Sun’s disciples His symbol is the Lamb The worship of the Indo-Persian god Mithra dates back centuries to millennia preceding the common era. The god is found as “Mitra” in the Indian Vedic religion, which is over 3, years old, by conservative estimates.

When the Iranians separated from their Indian brethren, Mitra became known as “Mithra” or “Mihr,” as he is also called in Persian. Mithra as Sun God The Indian Mitra was essentially a solar deity, representing the “friendly” aspect of the sun. So too was the Persian derivative Mithra, who was a “benevolent god” and the bestower of health, wealth and food.

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Mithra, the Light of the World, is an ancient sun god identified with Sol Invictus, who was born on December 25th. Mithra resembled Jesus Christ in many ways, including having a virgin birth, 12 companions and an ascension into heaven, as well as other doctrinal and ritual correspondences such as baptism and the eucharist.

Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Muhammad Ali is said to have gone there. Tony Wilson supposedly had his stag party there. Even Bob Marley is rumoured to have visited. Opened on the corner of Moss Lane East and Princess Road in , its heyday was from to when it became a haven for Manchester’s mixed-race community who often weren’t welcome elsewhere. The Reno in Moss Side. The entrance was the black door on the left Linda remembers being struck by how many great looking mixed race guys there were on the first night she went there, aged 17, in And it was an absolute badge of honour to be our colour, you were definitely in.

Janice George and friends at The Reno Image: Many had an alcoholic mum or there was something wrong in the background.

Encyclopædia Iranica

The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna , meaning “worship, devotion”. In English , an adherent of the faith is commonly called a Zoroastrian or a Zarathustrian. In Zoroastrian liturgy the term is used as a title for an individual who has been formally inducted into the religion in a Navjote ceremony.

Urban sketchers show the world, one drawing at a time.

Continue or return to previous position. Hollywood icon Angelina Jolie divorces her husband, actor Brad Pitt, after little more than two years of marriage. The grounds of divorce will be listed as “incompatibility. Angelina Jolie has filed for divorce from husband Brad Pitt, citing irreconcilable differences. According to the court documents, the pair separated on September 15, two years and one month after they married in August Jolie is seeking physical custody of their six children and asking the court to grant Pitt visitation.

She is also asking to keep “miscellaneous jewelry and other personal effects” as well as any earnings from after the date of their separation and other separate assets to be determined later.

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